There are three levels to charge an EV. Level 1 uses 120-volt power and takes an EV all day to charge. Level 2 has 240 volts and takes a few hours to charge an EV. Level 3 (Tesla Supercharging or DC Fast Charging ) finishes the job at public charging sites in less than an hour. Gasoline has been used to fill up cars for more than a hundred years.
There are a few different kinds: normal, mid-grade, luxury fuel, or diesel. But the refueling process is pretty simple. Everyone understands how to do it, and it only takes about five minutes to finish. But powering electric cars isn’t as quick or easy. There are several reasons, such as that each electric car can use a different amount of power.
There are also different plugs, but the most important thing is that different kinds of EV charging affect how long it takes to charge an EV. EVs and plug-in hybrids have different charging amounts and times than standard hybrids. Hybrids don’t have a separate charger because the engine or regenerative braking charges them.
Three Levels of Electric Vehicle Charging
Level 1, Level 2, and Level 3 are the three different ways to charge an EV. Level 3 is split into DC Fast Charging and (Tesla) Supercharging. As additional energy is sent to the car during charging, the process goes faster as the amount of charging increases. EVs charge at several speeds on each level, which is important to remember.
Each EV can use a different amount of power from the charger, called an EVSE (electric vehicle supply equipment in the business world). Before the charger is turned on after an electric car is put in, there is a connection process. The car requests the charger how much power it can send, and then it asks for the most power the station can send, which the car can accept.
The car always decides how much power it can take, so you don’t have to worry about putting your EV into a charging facility that can give it more power than it can handle. The charger can’t give the car too much power because the car won’t let it.
Level 1 Charging: 120-Volt
- Connectors Used: J1772 and Tesla
- Charging Speed: 3–5 miles per hour
- Locations: Home, Workplace, and Public
Level 1 charging is accomplished using a standard 120-volt wall socket. On Level 1, an electric car or plug-in hybrid charging equipment can be plugged into a standard wall outlet. Level 1 charging is the fastest way to charge an EV. It extends the range by 3 to 5 miles per hour.
Because their batteries are less than 25 kWh, plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs) work well with level 1 charging. Level 1 charging is too sluggish for typical everyday charging since EV batteries are significantly larger unless the vehicle isn’t driven very far daily. Level 2 charging suits most BEV customers’ daily charging requirements.
Level 2 Charging: 208-Volt to 240-Volt
- Connectors Used: J1772 and Tesla
- Charge Speed: 12 to 80 miles per hour
- Locations: Home, work, and public places.
Most EVs are charged everyday at level 2, the most usual level. Level 2 charging stations may be installed at home, the workplace, and public venues like shopping malls and railway stations. It can provide between 12 and 80 miles of range per hour based on how much power the Level 2 charger produces and how quickly the vehicle can charge.
Most BEV proprietors install Level 2 charging equipment at home because it can charge the vehicle up to 10 times faster than Level 1 charging. Even though your car’s battery was almost empty when you plugged it in, it will normally be completely charged overnight if you hook it into a Level 2 source.
Level 2 chargers can give up to 80 amps. However, a special 100-amp 208-240V circuit and a bulky, costly line from the switch box are required. Most EV owners will do well to choose a 40-amp charger capable of providing 9.6 kW.
A 48-amp charger may charge at 11.5 kW quicker, but it requires a longer cable and must be installed by the NEC rule. So, while 48-amp chargers are more expensive than 40-amp chargers, they only charge slightly faster.
Level 3 charging: 400 volts to 900 volts (DC fast charge and supercharging)
- Connectors Used: Combined Charging System (Combo), CHAdeMO, and Tesla connectors are used.
- Charge Speed: 3–20 miles per minute
- Locations: In the open
Level 3 charging is the fastest way and may provide 3 to 20 miles of range to an electric car each minute. Levels 1 and 2 charge using alternating current (AC), whereas Level 3 charges with direct current (DC). Level 3 charging is far more powerful than Levels 1 and 2. Therefore, you won’t find it at home.
Level 3 charging is only available in high-voltage private spaces. DC Fast Chargers are also rather costly, costing hundreds of thousands of dollars. Even if your house has 400-volt electricity, the charger will almost certainly cost more than the EV. Some Tesla Level 3 chargers are Superchargers, while others are DC Fast Chargers. The newer Nissan EVs utilize CHAdeMO, a third standard.